Saturday, February 20th, 2016

Fountain Theater – History

In April, 1912, Albert J. Fountain, Jr. applied for a business license to open a moving picture business in Mesilla. He gave the name of the theater as “The Fountain of Pleasure.” Prior to the theater showing moving pictures, the theater was used for dramatic plays and visiting vaudeville acts. This continued even after theater began showing movies.

Fountain had purchased the site for the theater for $125 on August 23, 1905, from trustees of the Home Mission Board of the Presbyterian Church, which had operated a church there since 1880. This is the same site used by the theater today, making the Fountain Theater the oldest operating moving picture theater in New Mexico.

Fountain operated the theater until 1916, when he went out of business. He resume the theater business in 1919. In 1927, Fountain sold the site and theater. The new owner operated the theater until 1931, when he went out of business. In 1938, Fountain repurchased the site and theater. In 1951, he closed the theater.

Fountain Theater - Mesilla, New Mexico

As an independent theater operator, Fountain always had great difficulty obtaining new movies on a timely basis. For most of the time between 1938 and 1951, Fountain showed Spanish language movies.

In 1963, the Las Cruces Community Theater (LCCT) obtained permission from the Fountain family to use the building for dramatic plays. This continued until 1977, when the LCCT moved to its current location, the State Theater in Las Cruces.

Following the exit of LCCT, the Fountain Theater resumed showing movies, becoming an “Art House.” The Fountain Theater was the only venue in the Las Cruces area where movies such as MIDNIGHT COWBOY, THE DISCREET CHARM OF THE BOURGEOISIE, and LAST TANGO IN PARIS were shown.

The present occupant, the Mesilla Valley Film Society, began showing films at the Fountain Theater in 1989.

Fountain Theater - Inside Mural

The walls of the Fountain Theater are decorated with murals of historic Mesilla scenes painted by Albert J. Fountain, Jr.

Source: Screen With A Voice — A History of Moving Pictures in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

See Also:
New Book on Las Cruces History
Mesilla Museum Display

Tuesday, November 24th, 2015

New Book on Las Cruces History

Screen With A Voice – A History of Moving Pictures in Las Cruces, New Mexico

Screen With A Voice - A History of Moving Pictures in Las Cruces
The first projected moving pictures were shown in Las Cruces 110 years ago. Who exhibited those movies? What movies were shown? Since projected moving pictures were invented in 1896, why did it take ten years for the first movie exhibition to reach Las Cruces? Who opened the first theater in town? Where was it located? These questions began the history of moving pictures in Las Cruces, and they are answered in this book. But so are the events and stories that follow.

First movie shown in Las Cruces
First theater in Las Cruces
First talkie shown in Las Cruces
Invention of drive-in theater in Las Cruces
Opening of Rio Grande Theater
Impact of Great Depression on business
Raffle of six-week-old baby girl at Mission Theater
World premiere of first BILLY THE KID movie
Second world premiere of a BILLY THE KID movie
Arrival of Organ, Rocket, Fiesta, and Aggie Drive-Ins
Shooting of Clint Eastwood’s HANG ‘EM HIGH

There have been 21 movie theaters in Las Cruces – all but three or four are forgotten. They are unremembered no longer. And one, especially, the Airdome Theater which opened in 1914, deserves to be known by all movie historians – it was an automobile drive-in theater, the invention of the concept, two decades before movie history declares the drive-in was invented.

To supplement this history are 102 photos and illustrations. These include ephemeral documents such as the 4-page flyer for Las Cruces’ third movie exhibition, at the Rink Theater; historic photos of theaters; aerial photos of drive-ins; and never-before-published photos of the shooting of HANG ‘EM HIGH.

Cover: Depicts the 1930 world premiere of BILLY THE KID, starring John Mack Brown as Billy, at the Rio Grande Theater in Las Cruces.

See Also:
Fountain Theater – History
Mesilla Museum Display

Wednesday, August 6th, 2014

New Book on the Hermit of La Cueva – El Ermitaño

Giovanni Maria de Agostini, Wonder Of The Century — The Astonishing World Traveler Who Was A Hermit

Giovanni Maria de Agostini Book
This book is about a remarkable man, Giovanni Maria de Agostini, born in Italy in 1801, who combined two seemingly contradictory aspirations: a fervent desire to devote his whole life to “perfect solitude” and an astonishing urge to travel incessantly.

As his decisions and actions emerge from the lightless silence – the time-covered past – a unifying purpose becomes evident.

Following extensive travel in Europe, Agostini takes vows revocable only by formal dispensation from the Pope. He immediately leaves forever his “beloved Italy” for South America. Twenty-one years he spends traversing that, at the time, greatly unexplored continent, visiting Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Chile – and so doing multiple times. During this spectacular solo Odyssey, he survives a trip down the Amazon River by canoe, crosses the Alps by foot several times, walks vast distances, and endures living alone in scalding deserts and subzero mountains. In spite of oppressive and infuriating obstacles, including death threats, unjust arrest, deportation, jail, and forced confinement in a mental asylum, Agostini persists undeterred in the solemn goal he set for himself when he left Europe.

Seeking change and another continent, Agostini leaves South America for Mexico, passing through Panama and Guatemala, and then Mexico for North America, passing through Cuba. In Cuba, he is hailed as an extraordinary adventurer, his photograph is taken, and he is proclaimed “The Wonder of Our Century.” After arrival in New York, he walks to Canada, where he spends almost a year, then “goes west,” eventually reaching, in the midst of the American Civil War, the Territory of New Mexico, where he meets his merciless fate.

Agostini is remembered in many places — in South America as Monge João Maria, in North America as Ermitaño Don Juan Agostini; however his life story is encrusted with myth and false fact. As the veritable events of his life are unveiled, a man of fascinating originality, prodigious endurance, intelligence, self-discipline, and self-sufficiency, infused with an indomitable spirit of adventure, emerges.

Today in Argentina, as many as 15,000 people participate in a yearly festival initiated by Agostini at Cerro Monje, “Monk’s Hill.” In Brazil, at Cerro Campestre, “Campestre Hill,” and Santo Cerro do Botucaraí, “Holy Hill of Botucaraí,” over 10,000 people celebrate annual events founded by Agostini. In Lapa, Brazil, a national park protects the pilgrimage route to Gruta do Monge, “Monk’s Grotto.” At Araçoiaba Hill, near Sorocaba, Brazil, the Trilha da Pedra Santa, “Trail of the Holy Rock,” is climbed annually by thousands of people desiring to pay respect to the memory of the Monge do Ipanema, the “Monk of Ipanema.”

These are just a few examples of Agostini’s cultural legacy, 145 years after his death.

“David G. Thomas has finally pulled back the veil of obscurity that long shrouded one of the most enduring mysteries in New Mexico’s long history to reveal the true story of the Hermit, Giovanni Maria de Agostini. Tracking Agostini from Italy throughout South and North America to his final resting place in Mesilla, Thomas has once again proven himself a master history detective. Of particular interest is the information about the Hermit’s life in Brazil, which closely parallels his remarkable experience in New Mexico, and required extensive research in Portuguese sources. Thomas’s efforts make it possible to understand this deeply religious man.” — Rick Hendricks, New Mexico State Historian

20 maps and 65 photos, including 2 rare photos of Agostini, one taken in 1857 and one taken in 1861.

Table of Contents here.
E-Book here

Filed in: Mesilla | Comments

Wednesday, September 18th, 2013

Did Billy the Kid Stay at La Posta in Mesilla?

“Best history of Mesilla.”

“La Posta: From the Founding of Mesilla, to the Corn Exchange Hotel, to Billy the Kid Museum, to Famous Landmark” consists of 5 sections:

  • Chapter 1 is a history of Mesilla, beginning with its founding in 1850 by Rafael Ruelas.
  • Chapter 2 gives the original and early ownership of all the properties around the public square in Mesilla, identifying previously uncertain locations such as the Butterfield Overland Stage location.
  • Chapter 3 is a history of the Corn Exchange Hotel, founded in 1874, the most famous hotel in New Mexico at the time. Almost all the major participants of the Lincoln County War stayed at the hotel.
  • Chapter 4 is a history of the Billy the Kid museum and its founder, Mesilla pioneer and impresario George Griggs.
  • Chapter 5 is a history of La Posta, Mesilla’s most famous landmark.

“Mesilla is full of Billy the Kid history. It’s where he started off rustling with Jesse Evans and it’s where he was tried and convicted of murder. At one point, rumor has it, he even stayed at the Corn Exchange Hotel (along with many of the other heavy hitters from the Lincoln County War).”

“For someone who grew up in the area of Mesilla, it’s nice to have a well-researched book about the area — and the giant photographs don’t hurt either (honestly, I love to see photos that take up the whole page so you can actually make out the detail)….”

“And the thing I was most excited to see is a photo of the hotel registry where the name of “William Bonney” is scrawled on the page. I knew this registry had existed at one point but I always thought it was missing…. There is some debate as to whether or not Billy the Kid really signed the book, which the author goes into, but what would Billy the Kid history be without a little controversy.”

Billy the Kid Outlaw Gang Newsletter, Winter, 2013

See also:
Mesilla Museum Display
Billy the Kid Display – Mesilla
Saving the Pat Garrett Marker
Billy’s DNA
Old Mesilla Courthouse
Billy the Kid
Butterfield Overland Stage

Saturday, June 8th, 2013

Trip to Mason’s Ranch

Map to Mason's Ranch

The site known as Mason’s Ranch or Slocum’s Ranch is about 20 miles west of Las Cruces and 10 miles north of Hwy 10. From 1862 to 1883, it was a life-saving lodging and watering stop for travelers heading west from the Mesilla Valley.

The site has natural water that is available part of the year, most years. Prior to 1862 it was known as “Water Holes” and had been used by Native Americans as a camping and watering spot for hundreds of years.
Mason's Ranch and Overland Stage Route

In 1862 Virgil Mastin built a stage stop on the site. The site was not a stop for the Butterfield Overland Mail Stage Line, but was for subsequent stage lines. As the satellite image above shows, the site is a short distance south of the old Overland Stage route. When the Civil War started, the Federal government, which had contracted with the Butterfield Overland Stage to carry mail, ordered the company to sell or recover its property and cease operations. The agents of the company sold their Mesilla properties on May 18, 1861.*

Mastin installed water tanks for supplying water when the springs were dry. When these tanks could not be filled from the local water, he hauled water by wagon from Mesilla. He also dug a large dirt reservoir to save rain water.

In 1865-66 Mastin took on John D. Slocum as a partner. Slocum had been running the stop for some time as an employee of Mastin.

On May 18, 1868, Mastin is killed by Indians. He was traveling to Pinos Altos by buggy, accompanied by two men on horseback:

“The horsemen stopped behind to allow their horses to drink at the crossing of Whiskey Creek, and Mr. Mastin drove on slowly, and when fired upon by the Indians was about half a mile beyond the creek and three miles from Pinos Altos. The horsemen hearing the firing rode up and fired upon the Indians – some forty in number – who were on foot and all after Mr M. who had turned his buggy about and was trying to get back into the road with the intention of running this way, but, unfortunately for him, just as he got back into the road the buggy turned over and threw him out when he was shot full of holes….”**

Slocum buys Mastin’s half of the stop from his estate on March 1, 1870, for $258. Slocum expands the stop with additional structures and corrals and calls it Slocum’s Ranch. The 1870 census shows Slocum, age 40, living at the stop with his wife Jesusa, 28, and two children Louis, 3, and John, 1. Two employees also live there, John Perry, 32, and John Brown, 26.
Mason's Ranch Aerial View 1974

The design of the stage stop is marked on the aerial photo above, taken by Keith J. Humphries in 1974. As indicated, the south section contained rooms, the north section two large corrals. All were protected by an adobe wall. The reservoir is south of the walled structure. Even though the site continues to degrade, you can still see the outline of the stop in this recent satellite photo:
Mason's Ranch Satellite Image
On October 25, 1875, Slocum leases the stop to Richard S. Mason for $75 a month. Mason advertises in the Mesilla paper:

“TRAVELLERS, ATTENTION!

R. S. Mason having leased the place heretofore known as

SLOCUM’S RANCH

situate 25 miles west of Mesilla on the road to Silver City and the west, informs the public generally that he is prepared to receive and accommodate travellers, and to supply passing trains or herds of animals with water.

This is the only watering place between the Rio Grande and Fort Cummins. I always have an abundance of water on hand, which I will furnish at reasonable rates.

My table will be kept supplied with the best the market affords.

I have pleasant and comfortable rooms furnished with clean beds for the use of travellers. Also comfortable and secure stabling for animals. I always keep a good supply of hay and grain on hand.

Travellers will find at my place everything requisite to supply their wants and add to their comfort, my charges will not be found unreasonable.

R. S. Mason”***

Mason ran into financial trouble in 1879, borrowing money that year, and by 1884 had abandoned the site.

Some images as the site appears today:
Mason's Ranch - Stage Stop
(Above) Looking at the northeast corner of the compound. The rock structure served two purposes: to retain the dirt fill necessary to level the corral and as the foundation of the adobe wall surrounding the stage stop. Note the erosion.
Mason's Ranch - Stage Stop
Looking at the base of the foundation.
Mason's Ranch - Stage Stop
Looking south along the east wall. You can see the ruins of the housing section of the compound in the distance.
Mason's Ranch - Stage Stop
The housing ruins. Note the rock portion of the standing wall. The part of the structure used as a fireplace was rocked, the rest of the structure was adobe.

*La Posta – From the Founding of Mesilla, to Corn Exchange Hotel, to Billy the Kid Museum, to Famous Landmark, David G. Thomas, 2013.
**Santa Fe New Mexican, June 2, 1868.
***Mesilla Valley Independent, Oct 13, 1877.

See also:
Picacho — Forgotten Butterfield Stage Stop
Rough and Ready – Butterfield Stage Stop

Monday, June 18th, 2012

Rough and Ready – Butterfield Stage Stop

Rough and Ready was the second stop of the Overland Mail Stage Line after leaving Mesilla. (The first stop was Picacho.)

The Rough and Ready station is on the west side of the Rough and Ready Hills. Upon leaving Picacho, the trail led through Box Canyon north of Picacho peak, across flat tableland, and then through a pass to the station, as shown below. The hills to the north of the pass are the Sleeping Lady Hills, to the south the Rough and Ready Hills. The distance as traveled by the trail is about 15 miles. Traces of the trail are still easily seen in damage to the terrain and wagon-wheel wear-marks in rocks.Rough and Ready Butterfield Stage Stop

Here is a close view of the station location:
Rough and Ready Butterfield Stage Stop

If you climb the summit above the station, you see Picacho Peak in the distance (circled) and the environmental disturbance due to the trail:
Rough and Ready Butterfield Trail

In the foreground of the photo above is one of the cairns established by the Bartlett-Conde* survey to mark the border between Mexico and the United States. Following the end of the Mexican-American war in 1848, both countries agreed to a joint survey to establish the border. The survey was to start at El Paso del Norte and go west. Because of a bad map, the starting location was mistakenly set 42 miles north of where it should have been. This mistake put Mesilla in Mexico and led to a nasty border dispute that was only settled by the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. The map below shows the mistaken area (click for a larger map):
Bartlett-Conde Survey Map - 1848

There is little left of the Rough and Ready station. Many of the still visible ruins are likely of a later date. An archaeological excavation established that the station consisted of a two-room stone and adobe house with chimneys and a large adobe corral. There was no water source at the station. A dirt tank was dug to capture rain water and water was also hauled from Mesilla.

Here are some ruins:
Rough and Ready Butterfield Stage Stop

Here is one of the stakes marking a corner of the archaeological excavation:
Rough and Ready Butterfield Stage Stop

There is a mysterious burial or memorial of unknown origin a short distance from the old station that reads “Stubs, RIP.” It has no date, but can not be more than 20 years old. If you have any information on this cement marker, please communicate it.
Rough and Ready Butterfield Stage Stop - Stubs, RIP

*The lead American surveyor was John Russell Bartlett, the lead Mexican surveyor was Pedro Garcia Conde.

See also:
Picacho Cemetery
Picacho – A Brief History
Picacho Peak
Picacho — Forgotten Butterfield Stage Stop
Trip to Mason’s Ranch

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Monday, February 27th, 2012

Picacho Cemetery

Virtually nothing is known of this abandoned cemetery in Picacho, even by residents. The cemetery is on private land. Only two stones exist, but mounds and other signs indicate other burials.
Picacho Cemetery
Picacho Cemetery
Picacho Cemetery
See also:
Picacho Peak
Picacho — A Brief History
Picacho — Forgotten Butterfield Stage Stop

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Filed in: History, Mesilla | Comments

Tuesday, February 14th, 2012

Picacho — A Brief History

Evangelisto Chavez

Evangelisto Chavez

Picacho was founded in 1855 by Juan (or Jose) Evangelisto Chaves, known as Evangelisto Chaves. Evangelisto, born May 8, 1827, had moved to Mesilla from Socorro, New Mexico some time before 1855. Evangelisto’s family history goes back to Pedro Gomez Duran Y Chaves*, who was born in Valverde de Llerena, Spain, and was one of the founding residents of Santa Fe in 1602. Evangelisto married Maria Petra de Jesus Trujillo in Socorro in 1851.

Picacho had long been a camping spot because it was located just south of a natural Rio Grande River crossing known as Apache or Indian Ford. It was also near one of the few places where it was possible to get wagons or coaches up the western slope of the Mesilla Valley. Even though the valley is not that steep, the west side consists of deep sand that provides a formidable barrier to horse-drawn conveyances.

Local tradition says that Evangelisto built the first house in Picacho. He established a large farm and a mercantile business and began employing many workers. He also started a ferry boat service at Apache Ford. Because he owned almost the entire town, it was sometimes called Chaves.

With Evangelisto’s financial acumen and the business provided by the Overland Mail Stage Stop established in 1858, the settlement grew fast. Just how fast can be seen in an 1859 Territorial vote:

Dona Ana, 240
Las Cruces, 100
Brazito, 19
La Mesa, 212
Santo Tomas, 69
Mesilla, 1101
Picacho, 136
Tucson, 267
Colorado City (Rodey), 100

These numbers are votes, i.e., United States male citizens, but they give an idea of the relative populations of the towns of southern New Mexico at this time (Arizona was part of New Mexico until February 24, 1863).

Picacho’s close proximity to the mountains made it vulnerable to Indian attacks, and there are accounts of raids in which livestock were taken and citizens lost their lives. Here is a typical account:

“On the morning of the 30th ult., five Apaches stole out of a corral at the village of Picacho, two hundred head of cattle. To show the audacity of these Indians, we will note that the stock was stolen within five miles of a camp of 650 soldiers.” (September 30, 1861)

During the Civil War, Picacho’s position as a transit point to Arizona led to its use for that purpose by both Confederate and Union troops.

With the arrival of the train at Las Cruces in 1881, Picacho along with Mesilla, La Mesa, Dona Ana, and Santo Tomas began a decline that led, by 1900, to almost insignificance.

Evangelisto, who is enumerated in the census of 1880 as living in Picacho, recognized Picacho’s dwindling importance and moved to Las Cruces in July, 1881, where he built a large house. In Las Cruces he had many business interests and served as Justice of the Peace, county treasurer, and school commissioner. He died unexpectedly on March 2, 1886.

*Although about 250 Spanish men and a few wives settled in Santa Fe following Don Juan de Oñate’s expedition there in 1598, by 1608 only about 50 remained, of which Pedro Gomez Duran Y Chaves was one. He was appointed Military Commander of New Mexico in 1627. His descendents spell the name both Chavas and Chavez.

See also:
Picacho Cemetery
Picacho Peak
Picacho — Forgotten Butterfield Stage Stop
Rough and Ready – Butterfield Stage Stop

Sources:
Research by Dan Aranda; Photo of Evangelisto Chaves Copyright 2012 Dan Aranda; “Santa Fe Weekly Gazette,” January 8, 1859; “The Daily Dispatch,” November 5, 1861; “Rio Grande Republican,” March 6, 1886; Chavez, A Distinctive American Clan of New Mexico, by Fray Angelico Chavez.

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Thursday, October 27th, 2011

Picacho — Forgotten Butterfield Stage Stop

Many who have written about the Butterfield Overland Mail have left out the Picacho stage stop, sometimes called Rancho Picacho, in their accounts. This is a bit surprising as the very first written account of the Butterfield trail mentions the Picacho stop.
Waterman Lilly Ormsby
Waterman Lilly Ormsby, a special correspondent for the New York Herald, took the first stage from St. Louis to San Francisco so he could report on the experience. He was the only passenger with a straight-through ticket. He left St. Louis on September 16, 1858 and arrived in San Francisco 24 days later, the stage having traveled day and night, stopping so passengers could sleep only every second or third night.

During the trip Ormsby wrote 8 articles about the trip, which were published in the Herald.

Mesilla was almost exactly half way between St. Louis and San Francisco.

Here is what Ormsby wrote on leaving Mesilla:

“A few miles from Messilla [Mesilla] we changed our horses for another team of those interminable mules, and started on a dreary ride of 52 miles for Cook’s Spring. This is the commencement of that series of deserts without water extending from the Rio Grande to the Gila – one of the most tedious portions of the route.

Our road lay through what was called the Pecatch [Picacho] Pass, and, as I walked nearly all the way through it, it seemed to me rather mountainous. It was about 2 miles long and had some very bad hills. In comparison with other passes and canyons on the route, it was not very bad, though quite bad enough and all uphill. When, however, we reached the summit, we were upon the border of a broad and level plain extending as far away as the eye could reach. At our backs were the ranges of the Oregon [Organ] Mountains, the debris of the Rocky Mountains, forming the Eastern boundary of the Messilla [Mesilla] Valley. In front we could just see in the distance Cooke’s peak, rising from the plain in bold prominence from among the surrounding hills.”

The stop where the stage changed from horses to mules was the Picacho stop. Mules were used when the road was rough and mountainous. Mules could handle rougher terrain, but were slower than horses, so the Picacho stop was important, else mules would have had to be put on in Mesilla, making it a tough pull to reach the first stage stop after Picacho, Rough and Ready.

As noted in this post and confirmed by the Ormsby quote above, the stage went north of Picacho peak, not south as almost all writers have it. There was a southern road that stayed on the plains, which horse riders often took, but the water necessary for animals pulling a stage was available only on the mountainous route.

The last remains of the stage stop in Picacho were torn down in 1954, but here is the location today in the old village of Picacho:
Picacho Station
Below is a Google satellite image with the location of the Picacho station marked (white square). The GPS is 32.32459, -106.84989. The black line shows the route the stage took through Picacho.
Picacho Butterfield Stage Station Map
Here is an old adobe in Picacho probably built in the 1890s.
Picacho Old Adobe

See also:
Picacho Cemetery
Picacho — A Brief History
Picacho Peak
Rough and Ready — Butterfield Stage Stop
Trip to Mason’s Ranch

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Monday, August 8th, 2011

Mesilla Duel — Legal Considerations

As noted in the post Colt’s Six-Shooters at 15 Paces, Jose Manuel Gallegos and Judge John S. Watts fought a duel “near the Mexican line” on September 10, 1859. Neither man was injured, although they each fired five bullets using what were then advanced, modern weapons.

Why did they choose to fight “near the Mexican line?”

They did so because the legal sanctions against dueling in New Mexico at the time were severe.

Section 20 of Chapter 11 of the Territorial laws in 1859 stated:

“Every person who shall by previous engagement or appointment fight a duel within the jurisdiction of this Territory, and in so doing shall inflict a wound upon any person, whereof the person so injured shall die, shall be deemed guilty of murder in the second degree.”

The punishment provided in the same statues for second degree murder  if premeditation was involved was life in prison.

It was also against the law to fight a duel even if no one was wounded or killed:

“Every person who shall engage in a duel with any deadly weapon, although no homicide ensues, or shall challenge another to fight such duel, or shall send or deliver any written or verbal message purporting or intending to be such challenge, although no duel ensues, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail or territorial prison not less than one year, or shall be fined in any sum not leas than two hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.”

But it wasn’t just duelers who faced extreme legal liability. Their seconds also could be charged with murder:

“Every person who shall be the second of either party in such duel as is mentioned in the preceding section, and shall be present when such wound shall be inflicted, whereof death shall ensue, shall be deemed to be an accessory before the fact to the crime of murder in the fifth degree.”

The strict provisions of the law intended to prevent dueling didn’t end there, however. Both the act of issuing and accepting a challenge were illegal:

“Every person who shall engage in a duel with any deadly weapon, although no homicide ensues, or shall challenge another to fight such duel, or shall send or deliver any written or verbal message purporting or intending to be such challenge, although no duel ensues, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail or territorial prison not less than one year, or shall be fined in any sum not leas than two hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.”

“Every person who shall accept such challenge, or who shall knowingly carry or deliver any such challenge or message, whether a duel ensues or not; and every person who shall be present at the fighting of a duel with deadly weapons, as an aid, or second, or surgeon, or who shall advise, or encourage, or promote such duel, shall pay a fine of not less than five hundred dollars, nor more than one thousand dollars.”

See also:
Colt’s Six Shooters at 15 Paces

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Filed in: History, Mesilla | Comments